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2011年考研英语核心词汇真题语境详解(1)

作者:不详   发布时间:2010-10-18 08:14:44  来源:网络
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  A

  abandon★

  构词a不+ban禁止+don给予→不禁止给出去→放弃

  vt. 1.give up completely放弃

  2.forsake,desert 遗弃, 丢弃

  3.yield completely to 放肆, 放纵; 沉湎于

  n. freedom from worry or inhibitions放肆; 放纵; 尽情; 任意

  真题连线2001 Passage 5

  Abandoning the doctrine of “juggling your life”, and making the alternative move into “downshifting” brings with it far greater rewards than financial success and social status. 放弃“忙忙碌碌”的生活哲学,转而过一种“放慢生活节奏”的生活所带来的回报,比经济成功和社会地位更有价值。

  absolute★

  构词ab不+solute松开→决不松开→绝对的

  a.1.complete; total绝对的; 完全的, 纯粹的,确实的

  2.unrestricted; unlimited; unqualified无条件的, 不受限制的

  3.having unlimited power 专制的, 独断的

  4.certain; undoubted 确实的, 肯定的

  真题连线2001 Passage 5

  My experiment in what the Americans term “downshifting” has turned my tired excuse into an absolute reality. 我这个被美国人称为“放慢生活节奏”的试验,却使我老掉牙的借口变成了绝对的现实。

  absorb★

  构词ab表强调+sorb吸→吸引

  vt.1.to take sth in through 吸收

  2.include sth/sb as part of; merge with 并吞

  3.hold the interest of sb fully使(精神)贯注

  习惯用语be absorbed by 被…吞并, 为…所吸收

  be absorbed in 全神贯注在…, 一心从事, 热衷于

  absorb sb.’s attention 吸引某人注意

  真题连线2007 Part C

  Sharpening judgment by absorbing and reflecting on law is a desirable component of a journalist’s intellectual preparation for his or her career.通过并运用法律来提高判断能力是一名新闻记者为其职业生涯做好知识准备的一个重要组成部分。

  absorbed★

  构词ab.表强调+sorb吸+ed形容词后缀→被吸引的→全神贯注的;专心的

  a.wholly involved or occupied; engrossed 热衷的,专注的

  真题连线2006 Text 1

  People are absorbed into “a culture of consumption”launched by the 19th-century department stores that offered vast arrays of goods in an elegant atmosphere. 人们被一种消费文化所吸引,这种文化是由十九世纪在高雅的氛围中陈列着琳琅满目的商品的百货商店所发起的。

  abstract★

  构词abs离开+tract拉,拖→拉出,抽

  a.1.existing in thought but not having practical抽象的; 理论上的, 不现实的

  2.difficult to understand;深奥的;难以理解的

  vt. 1.to take away; remove抽取;拿走

  2.to summarize;概括;归纳

  n.摘要,梗概

  链接abstracteda.心不在焉的

  abstractionn.提取

  习惯用语in the abstract 抽象地, 观念上, 理论上; make an abstract of 把…的要点摘录下来

  真题连线2003 英译汉

  Thus, the anthropological concept of “culture”, like the concept of “set” in mathematics, is an abstract concept which makes possible immense amounts of concrete research and understanding. 因此,人类学中的“文化”概念就像数学中“集”的概念一样,是一个抽象概念。它使大量的具体研究和认识成为可能。

 abundant★

  构词ab 表强调+und波动+ant形容词后缀→多得象波浪一样→丰富的

  a.plentiful大量的,充足的,丰富的

  习惯用语abundant in富于…;…很丰富

  真题连线2005 Text 1

  Feelings of righteous indignation, it seems, are not the preserve of people alone. Refusing a lesser reward completely makes these feelings abundantly clear to other members of the group. 不公平而引起的愤怒感似乎不是人类的专利。拒绝接受较少的酬劳可以让这些情绪准确无误地传达给其它成员。

  abuse★

  构词ab 偏离+use用→偏离正常使用→滥用

  v.1.to use wrongly or improperly; misuse乱用,滥用

  2.to hurt or injure by maltreatment虐待,伤害

  n.1.improper use or handling; misuse 误用;恶习

  2.physical maltreatment虐待,伤害

  真题连线1997 Passage 3

  The phrase “substance abuse” is often used instead of “drug abuse” to make clear that substances such as alcohol and tobacco can be just as harmfully misused as heroin and cocaine. 他们常用“物质滥用”而不用“药物滥用”来清楚表明滥用酒精、烟草这样的物质如同滥用海洛因和可卡因一样有害。

  accelerate★

  构词ac表方向 +celer快,速+ate动词后缀→加速

  vt.1.to increase the speed of 加速,促进,加快…的速度

  2.cause to occur sooner than expected使比预期发生的要早

  链接acceleration n.加速,增速

  真题连线2001英译汉

  According to BT’s futurologist,Ian Pearson,these are among the developments scheduled for the first few decades of the new millennium(a period of 1000years),when supercomputers will dramatically accelerate progress in all areas of life. 根据英国电讯公司的未来学家伊恩·皮尔逊的看法,上述种种科研成就均属新千年的最初几十年内的开发项目之列,届时超级计算机将大大加快人类生活各个领域里的进步。

  access★

  构词ac表方向+cess走过去→接近

  n.1.means of approaching or entering (a place)(接近或进入某地的)方法; 通路;入口

  2.opportunity or right to use sth or approach sb接近某人的机会或权利;到达,享有权

  v.存取

  真题连线2008 Text 2

  The Internet—and pressure from funding agencies, who are questioning why commercial publishers are making money from governmentfunded research by restricting access to it—is making access to scientific results a reality. 网络——连同来自于投资机构的压力,他们质疑为什么商业出版商通过限制人们的使用来从政府资助的科学研究中获利——使免费接触到科学成果成为一个现实。

  accessible★

  构词access+ible形容词后缀→可接近的

  a.1.easily approached or entered易接近的,易进入的

  2.easily obtained易得到的

  3.easy to talk to or get along with易相处的

  真题连线2002英译汉

  As the interaction between organism and environment has come to be understood,however,effects once assigned to states of mind,feelings,and traits are beginning to be traced to accessible conditions. 然而,由于人(生物)和环境之间的相互作用已经逐渐被人们所认识,所以现在正开始从已知的环境去寻找一度认为是心态、情感和性格特征所造成的影响其根源所在。 accommodation★

  构词ac表强调+com共同+mod方式,模式,风度+ ion名词后缀→住处, 膳宿

  n.1.the act of accommodating or the state of being accommodated; adjustment适应

  2.something that meets a need; a convenience.方便,方便设施

  3.a seat, compartment, or room on a public vehicle.座位,车厢,房间

  习惯用语come to an accommodation达到和解, 达到妥协

  真题连线2002 Text 1

  He sees wonderful accommodations, beautiful gardens, sunny weather, and so on. 他看到了豪华的住宅、美丽的花园、晴朗的天气等等。

  accomplish★

  构词ac表强调+com共同+pli满,填满+ish动词后缀→全部弄满→完成

  vt.to reach the end of; complete达到终点;完成;实现(计划)

  真题连线2009 Part C

  The need of training is too evident; the pressure to accomplish a change in their attitude and habits is too urgent to leave these consequences wholly out of account. 显而易见,这需要培训;而且急需改变态度和习惯,这是我们不得不考虑的后果。

  accord★

  构词ac表强调+cord心脏→一致

  v.1.to cause to conform or agree; bring into harmony. 使符合,使同意;使和谐

  2.to grant, especially as being due or appropriate授予,尤其是应该或恰当地

  n. 符合,一致

  习惯用语in accord with 与…一致, 与…契合(指见解, 观点等); of one’s own accord 自愿地, 主动地

  out of accord (with) (同…)不一致; (跟…)不调和; accord with 与…一致, 与…相符

  真题连线2004 Text 4

  Intellect, according to Hofstadter, is different from native intelligence, a quality we reluctantly admire. 按照霍夫斯塔特的观点,才学不同于天生的智力,它是一种我们不太情愿去赞赏的品质。

  accountant▲

  构词ac表强调+count计数+ant人→会计

  n.会计人员,会计师

  真题连线1999 Passage 3

  It is, however, presumptuous to insist that there will only be so many jobs for so many scientists, so many businessmen, so many accountants. 然而,去臆断科学家、商人、会计职位的数量是武断的。

  accumulate▲

  构词ac表强调+cumul堆积+ate→堆积起来→积累

  v.gradually get or gather together积累, 聚集而成;堆积

  真题连线2001 Passage1

  Specialisation can be seen as a response to the problem of an increasing accumulation of scientific knowledge. 专业化可被视为针对科学知识不断膨胀这个问题所作出的反应。

  accurate ★

  构词ac表强调+cur关心+ate→表强调关心,弄精确为止

  a.1.free from error 正确无误的

  2.careful and exact 精确的; 准确的

  真题连线1995 Passage 3

  Those people who have accurate, reliable up-to-date information to solve the day-to-day problems, the critical problems of their business, social and family life, will survive and succeed. 那些拥有准确、可信、最新信息并用来解决日常问题、工作中的重要问题以及社会和家庭问题的人就能生存下去并取得成功。

  accuracy★

  构词ac表强调+cur关心+acy名词后缀→正确

  n.conformity to fact.准确;准确度;准确(性)

  真题连线2002 Text 2

  And thanks to the continual miniaturization of electronics and micro-mechanics, there are already robot systems that can perform some kinds of brain and bone surgery with submillimeter accuracy-far greater precision than highly skilled physicians can achieve with their hands alone. 由于电子和微观机械仪器的不断缩小,现在已有一些机器人系统能够进行精确到毫米的脑部和骨髓手术,其精确性远远超过熟练的医生用他们的双手所能达到的水平。

 acknowledge★

  构词ac表强调+knowldge知识,学识;知道→承认;答谢;报偿;告知收到

  v.1.accept the truth of (sth); admit (sth) 承认(某事物)属实; 供认(某事物)

  2.report that one has received (sth) 告知已收到(某物)

  链接acknowledgementn.承认; 致谢; 感谢

  真题连线2006 Text 3

  Dr. Worm acknowledges that these figures are conservative. 渥姆博士承认这些数字还只是保守数字。

  acquaintance★

  构词ac使+quaint知道+ance名词后缀→熟悉

  n.1.knowledge of a person acquired by a relationship less intimate than friendship认识,相识,了解

  2.a person whom one knows熟人

  习惯用语a passing acquaintance with对…的肤浅的了解

  have no acquaintance with不熟悉, 不了解

  make the acquaintance of sb.(make sb.s acquaintance)结识某人

  真题连线2001 Passage 5

  While in America the trend started as a reaction to the economic decline—after the mass redundancies caused by downsizing in the late-80s—and is still linked to the politics of thrift, in Britain, at least among the middle class downshifters of my acquaintance, we have different reasons for seeking to simplify our lives. 在美国,这种趋势一开始是对经济衰落所做出的一种反应——出现于80年代后期缩小经济规模所引起的大量人员冗余之后——在英国,至少在我所认识的中产阶级的简化生活者中,这种趋势仍被认为与节俭有关联,虽然如此,然而我们有着不同的缘由去寻求,使自己的生活简单化。

  acquire★

  构词ac表强调+quire寻求得到→获取

  vt.1.acquired, acquiring获得(知识等);取得;养成(习惯)

  2.to gain possession of 占有

  习惯用语acquire currency 传播; 流传, 散布 acquire acknowledge of 求得…的知识

  真题连线2003 Text 2

  They should be quick to respond to letters to the editor, lest animal rights misinformation go unchallenged and acquire a deceptive appearance of truth. 他们应该对读者致编辑的来信及时做出反应,以防止动物权利倡导者借机伪装起真理的外表,猖獗盛行。

  acquisitive★

  构词ac表强调+quis寻求,询问+itive形容词后缀→一再寻求→贪婪的

  a.1.characterized by a strong desire to gain and possess渴望得到的,贪婪的

  2.tending to acquire and retain ideas or information获得并保存的

  习惯用语be acquisitive of(迫切地)想获得

  真题连线2000 Passage 5

  What has happened is that people cannot confess fully to their dreams, as easily and openly as once they could, lest they be thought pushing, acquisitive and vulgar. 现在的情况是人们不能像以前那样轻易地、公开地坦陈自己的梦想,惟恐别人认为自己爱出风头、贪婪、庸俗不堪。

  act★

  构词act to do , to drive,“行动,做”

  n.1.the process of doing or performing sth过程;一幕

  2.a decisional product delivered by a legislative body.法案,法令

  3.a formal written record of proceedings or transactions备忘录,会议记录

  v.1.to play the part of; assume the dramatic role of扮演

  2.to behave like or pose as; impersonate假装

  习惯用语be in on the act参与;clean up(one’s)act改进举止

  get into the act加入,参与;get(one’s)act together组织起来,有头绪

  真题连线1996 Passage 3

  The paid manager acting for the company was in more direct relation with the men and their demands, but even he had seldom that familiar personal knowledge of the workmen which the employer had often had under the more patriarchal system of the old family business now passing away. 为公司做事的经理与员工及他们的需求关系更加直接,但即便是这个经理也很少像逐渐消失的传统家族企业中的、更具家族化体制下的雇主那样对员工的情况了如指掌。

  activate★

  构词act行动,做+ivate使动用法→使…活动

  v.make(sth)active 使(某事物)活动

  链接active a.活跃的,敏捷的,积极的;在活动中的

  真题连线1997 Passage 3

  Stimulants initially speed up or activate the central nervous system, whereas depressants slow it down. 兴奋剂主要起到加速或激活中枢神经系统的作用,而镇静剂则相反:减缓它的活动。

 actual★

  构词act行动,做+ual 形容词后缀→真实的

  a.existing in fact; real 实在的; 真实的; 实际的; 确实的

  链接actually ad.实际地; 实在地

  真题连线1997英译汉

  Actually, it isn’t, because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights, which is something the world does not have. 事实并非如此,因为这种问法是以人们对人的权利有共同的认识为基础的,而这种共同认识并不存在。

  acute★

  构词acu尖,酸,锐利+te形容词后缀→尖锐的,敏锐的

  a.1.keenly perceptive or discerning; penetrating敏锐的, 知觉敏锐的或有辨别能力的

  2.extremely sharp or severe; intense剧烈的;强烈的

  3.of great importance or consequence; crucial: 严重的;关键的,至关重要的或有重大后果的;决定性的

  真题连线1996 Passage 4

  Acute foreign observers related American adaptiveness and inventiveness to this educational advantage. 目光敏锐的外国观察家把美国人的适应能力和创新能力与这种教育优势联系起来。

  adapt★

  构词ad表强调+apt适应,能力→表强调适应

  v.1.make sth suitable for a new use, situation 适合新的用途、 情况

  2.become adjusted to new conditions, etc 适应(新环境等)

  链接adaptable a.能适应的; 适应性强的:

  真题连线1999年英译汉

  Social science methodologies had to be adapted to a discipline governed by the primacy of historical sources rather than the imperatives of the contemporary world. 社会科学研究的方法必须改变以适应这样一条指导,即以史料为基础,而不是为当代社会之需。

  addict★

  构词ad表强调+dict说→说了还说→沉溺

  n.1.person who is unable to stop taking drugs有瘾的人

  2.person who is strongly interested in sth 对某事物有强烈兴趣的人

  v. strongly interested in sth as a hobby 嗜好

  链接addictive a.使人上瘾的;addicteda.上瘾的

  真题连线1997 Passage 3

  Many people mistakenly believe the term drug refers only to some sort of medicine or an illegal chemical taken by drug addicts. 很多人错误地认为“药物”这个词仅仅指某些药品或是吸毒者服用的违禁化学品。

  adequate★

  构词ad表强调+equ相等,平均+ate动词后缀→足够的;可以胜任的

  a.sufficient to satisfy a requirement or meet a need足够的,足以满足要求或需求的

  真题连线2004 Cloze Test

  The latter may commit crimes for lack of adequate parental control. 后者也许会因为父母的管教不严而犯罪。

  adjective★[MZ)][5AdViktiv]

  构词ad增加+ject投掷,扔+ive形容词后缀→扔上去的→附加的

  a.1.grammar adjectival形容词的

  2.law prescriptive; remedial(法律) 程序的;补救的

  真题连线2000 Passage 3

  We must pour out a large stream of essential words, unhampered by stops, or qualifying adjectives, or finite verbs. 我们必须大量使用基本词汇,摆脱句号,修饰性形容词及限定动词的羁绊。

  adjoining★

  构词ad再+join结合,连接+ing形容词后缀→毗邻的

  a.neighboring; contiguous贴邻的;毗连的

  真题连线2005 Text 1

  However, when two monkeys were placed in separate but adjoining chambers, so that each could observe what the other was getting in return for its rock, their behaviour became markedly different. 但是,当两个猴子被安置在隔开但相邻的两个房间里,能够互相看见对方用石头换回来什么东西时,猴子的行为就会变得明显不同。

  adjust★

  构词ad表强调+just正“使变正→调整,校正”

  v.1.put(sth)into the correct order or position; arrange 整理; 整顿; 安排

  2.become or make suited(to new conditions); adapt 使适合(新环境等); 适应

  链接adjustable a.可调节的; 可调整的adjustment n.调整;评定

  真题连线2003 Cloze Test

  Because they are adjusting to their new bodies and a whole host of new intellectual and emotional challenges, teenagers are especially self-conscious and need the confidence that comes from achieving success and knowing that their accomplishments are admired by others. 因为年轻人正在适应他们新的身体和许许多多新的知识和情感挑战,所以他们特别爱面子并且需要信心,这种信心来自取得成功和来自知道他们的成就受到其他人的羡慕。

  administration★

  构词ad+minister(mini小+ster→小人→古代大臣称自己是“小人”→部长,大臣)+ation名词后缀→做部长→管理

  n.1.management经营

  2.the activity of a sovereign state in the exercise of its powers or duties.行政

  习惯用语under sb.’s administration在某人的管理下; during the administration of sb.在某人的任期内

  真题连线2005 Text 2

  If the administration won’t take the legislative initiative, Congress should help to begin fashioning conservation measures . 如果政府不争取立法上的主动权,国会就应该帮助政府开始采取保护措施。

  admire★

  构词ad表强调+mire惊奇,看→表强调让人惊喜→羡慕

  v.1.to regard with pleasure, wonder, and approval 以愉快、惊奇及赞同的心情看待

  2.to enjoy喜欢,想要喜欢(某物)

  真题连线2004 Text4

  Intellect, according to Hofstadter, is different from native intelligence, a quality we reluctantly admire. 按照霍夫斯塔特的观点,才学不同于天生的智力,它是一种我们不太情愿去赞赏的品质。

  admit★

  构词ad表强调+mit送,放出→送来→许可进入

  vt.1.to permit to enter允许进入

  2.to permit to exercise the rights, 许可,准许允许行使…的权利

  3.to grant to be real, valid, or true确认承认是真实的,有事实根据的

  vi.1.to afford possibility提供可能性

  2.to allow entrance允许进入;通往

  真题连线2000 Passage 3

  With regard to Futurist poetry, however, the case is rather difficult, for whatever Futurist poetry may be - even admitting that the theory on which it is based may be right—it can hardly be classed as Literature. 然而,就未来派诗歌而言,情况却相当不同,因为无论未来派诗歌为何物——即使承认其理论根据可能正确,也很难称之为文学。

  adopt★

  构词ad增加+opt选择→通过选择增加→采纳

  v.1.take sb into one’s family 收养某人

  2.take over采纳

  3.choose sb as a candidate or representative 挑选某人作候选人或代表

  链接adoptivea.过继的; 采纳的

  真题连线2009 Text 2

  Among the most popular : paternity and kinship testing , which adopted children can use to find their biological relatives and families can use to track down kids put up for adoption.在这些测试当中,最受欢迎的是父子关系及亲属关系测试——被收养的孩子可以用它来找到与自己有血缘关系的亲属,家庭也可以用此来查找供收养的小孩子的亲属关系。

  advocate★

  构词ad增强+voc叫喊,声音+ate动词后缀→增强声音→拥护

  v.speak publicly in favour of(sth); recommend; support 拥护; 提倡; 支持

  n.拥护者, 鼓吹者, 提倡者

  真题连线2003 Text 2

  Scientists need to respond forcefully to animal rights advocates, whose arguments are confusing the public and thereby threatening advances in health knowledge and care. 科学家应该对动物权利鼓吹者做出强有力的回应,因为他们的言论混淆了公众的视听,从而威胁到卫生知识和卫生服务的进步。

  affect★

  构词af表强调+fect做,制作→使人做→影响

  v.1.have an influence on; produce an effect on 影响

  2.cause (sb) to have feelings of sadness or sympathy; touch 使人有悲伤或同情的感觉; 感动

  链接affecting a.动人的; 感人的

  affection n.爱,爱慕之情

  真题连线2001 Passage 1

  Specialisation was only one of a series of related developments in science affecting the process of communication. 专业化仅是科学领域内一系列影响交流过程的有关现象之一。

  afford▲

  构词af表强调+ford拿出→表强调拿出→买得起

  v.have enough money, time, space, etc for (a specified purpose)为某目的有足够的钱、时间等;负担得起

  真题连线1999英译汉

  While history once revered its affinity to literature and philosophy,the emerging social sciences seemed to afford greater opportunities for asking new questions and providing rewarding approaches to an understanding of the past. 尽管历史学曾经崇尚它与文学和哲学的相似性,但新兴的社会科学似乎为人们提出新问题和提供了解过去的有效途径开辟了更为广阔的天地。

 agency★

  构词ag做,代理做+ency表机构或状态→代理机构

  n.business or place of business providing a service 经销; 代理; 经销处; 代理处

  真题连线2003 Text 1

  Straitford’s briefs don’t sound like the usual Washington back-and-forthing, whereby agencies avoid dramatic declarations on the chance they might be wrong. 司特雷福公司的简报听上去不像华盛顿当局的常规公文,在那儿,政府机构出言谨慎,以防出错。

  agenda★

  构词ag做,代理做+enda表示复数名词→做的事情→议程

  n.1.sth discussed at a meeting 议事单; 议程表

  2.a list or program of things to be done or considered议事日程

  真题连线2006 Text 4

  And since these messages have an agenda——to lure us to open our wallets to make the very idea of happiness seem unreliable. 由于这样的信息都有一项任务——即从我们的口袋里撬走钱包——所以它们使“幸福”的概念本身显得虚假。

  agent★

  构词ag做,代理做+ent表人或物→做的人→代理人

  n.1.one empowered to act for or represent another代理人;代理商

  2.a means by which sth is done or caused中介;动因;手段

  真题连线2004 Text 1

  Search agents reduce the need for repeated visits to the databases. 有了搜索代理,就没那么多必要反复访问资料库了。

  aggressive★

  构词ag表强调+gress行走+ive形容词后缀→侵略性的

  a.apt or ready to attack; offensive; quarrelsome侵略的, 好攻击的, 攻击性的

  真题连线2004 Text5

  Physicians—frustrated by their inability to cure the disease and fearing loss of hope in the patient - too often offer aggressive treatment far beyond what is scientifically justified. 医生由于不能治愈疾病,同时又担心病人失去希望,常常采用极端大胆的治疗方法,这些方法远远超出了科学能够认同的界限。

  agony★

  构词agon痛苦+y名词后缀→痛苦

  n.the suffering of intense physical or mental pain痛苦

  链接agonize v.感到苦恼

  真题连线2002 Text 4

  On another level, many in the medical community acknowledge that the assisted-suicide debate has been fueled in part by the despair of patients for whom modern medicine has prolonged the physical agony of dying. 另一方面,许多医疗界人士承认,致使医助自杀这场争论升温的部分原因是由于病人们的绝望情绪,对这些病人来说,现代医学延长了临终前肉体的痛苦。

  agricultural★

  构词agri田地,农业+culture培养+al形容词后缀→农业的

  a.农业的, 耕种的, 农学(上)的

  真题连线2000 Cloze Test

  He must use this surplus in three ways: as seed for sowing, as an insurance against--the unpredictable effects of bad weather and as a commodity which he must sell in order to replace old agricultural implements and obtain chemical fertilizers to feed the soil. 他必须储存大量谷物。而不是立即将之消费殆尽,惟有使粮食赢余,他才能继续养活自己及家人。他可将盈余用于以下三个方面:作为耕播的种子;应付难以预料的坏天气的后备;将之作为商品出售,以更新旧农具并购得肥田用的化肥。

  alarm★

  构词al表强调+arm武器→去拿武器→警报

  n.1.warning sound or signal 警报 ;

  2.apparatus that gives such a warning 警报器; 警报装置

  真题连线2004 Text 3

  But don’t sound any alarms just yet. Consumers seem only concerned, not panicked, and many say they remain optimistic about the economy’s long-term prospects even as they do some modest belt-tightening.不过,目前还不必敲什么警钟。消费者看起来略显忧虑,并没有惊慌失措。许多人虽然稍微勒紧腰带,但他们说对于经济的长期前景还是乐观的。

  allegation★

  构词al表强调+lege讲,读+ ion名词后缀→主张,断言, 辩解

  n.the act of alleging 主张,断言, 辩解

  真题连线2003 Text 2

  Hearing allegations of cruelty to animals in research settings, many are perplexed that anyone would deliberately harm an animal. 当人们听到医学实验虐待动物的指控时,许多人都不明白为什么有人会故意伤害动物。

 alter★

  构词alter其他的→变成其它的→变更

  v.1.to change or make different; modify变更;修饰;

  2.to adjust (a garment) for a better fit修改

  链接alterable a.可变的, 可改的

  真题连线1997 Passage 3

  Drugs (substances) that affect the central nervous system and alter perception, mood, and behavior are known as psychoactive substances. 影响中枢神经系统、改变感知觉和行为的药物(物质)被称为心理活动物质。

  alternative★

  构词alternate交替+ive形容词后缀→二者择一的

  n.the choice between two mutually exclusive possibilities两者择一,抉择

  真题连线2002 Text 1

  If you are talking to a group of managers, you may refer to the disorganized methods of their secretaries; alternatively if you are addressing secretaries, you may want to comment on their disorganized bosses. 如果你在和一群经理谈话,你就可以谈论他们秘书的散漫和低效率;相反,如果你在和一群秘书谈话,你就可以评论他们老板是怎样的组织不善。

  ambition★

  构词amb处处+it走+ion名词后缀→到处走动想实现抱负→雄心

  n.1.an eager or strong desire to achieve sth野心,雄心

  2.desire for exertion or activity; energy劲头;精力

  真题连线2000 Passage 5

  If ambition is to be well regarded, the rewards of ambition—wealth, distinction, control over one’s destiny—must be deemed worthy of the sacrifices made on ambition’s behalf. 个人的雄心如果能被正确看待的话,那么它的回报——财富、声誉、对命运的掌握——则应该被认为值得为之付出牺牲。

  ambitious★

  构词ambiti+ous形容词后缀→有雄心的

  a.1.full of, characterized by, or motivated by ambition.野心勃勃的

  2.greatly desirous; eager:热望的;渴望的

  真题连线2000 Passage 5

  For such people and many more perhaps not so exceptional, the proper formulation is, “Succeed at all costs but avoid appearing ambitious.” 对于这样的人,还有那些也许不太出色的人而言,“不惜一切代价获得成功,但避免让他人看出雄心勃勃”是对他们最好的诠释。

  amendment★

  构词a表强调+mend改错+ment名词后缀→改正,(宪法)修正

  n.1.the act of changing for the better; improvement改进;改善

  2.a correction or an alteration, as in a manuscript稿件改正,稿件修改

  3.formal revision of, addition to, or change, as in a bill or a constitution.修正案,修正条款

  真题连线1997 Passage 4

  “Some of us have known for many, many years that the freedoms under the First amendment are not totally unlimited,” says Luce. “我们中的一些人多年来就知道宪法第一修正案所说的自由并非毫无限制,”鲁斯说。

  ample★

  构词ampl大+e 形容词后缀→宽大的

  a.of large or great size, amount, or capacity充分的,富裕的;宽敞的,宽大的

  链接amplifier n.放大器,扩大器

  真题连线2000 Passage 5

  We are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles, which now more than ever seem in ample supply: the critic of American materialism with a Southampton summer home. 我们目睹了比以前任何时候都多的虚伪景观:美国物欲主义批评家在南安普顿拥有一幢避暑别墅。

  analogy★

  构词ana一样+log说话+y名词后缀→说的一样→类比

  n.similarity in some respects between things that are otherwise dissimilar类似,相似,类比,类推

  真题连线2007 Text 2

  IQ tests ask you to complete verbal and visual analogies, to envision paper after it has been folded and cut, and to deduce numerical sequences, among other similar tasks.智商测试要求你完成口头和视觉分析,要求你在纸张被折叠、剪切后想象它的形状,要求你推论数字的顺序,以及其他类似的项目。

  analysis★

  构词ana再次+lys裂开,分解+is表名词→再次分解→分析

  n.1.the separation of an intellectual or substantial whole into its constituent parts for individual study分解

  2.the stated findings of such a separation or determination.分析报告

  链接analyze vt.分析

  真题连线2005 Text 2

  Instead of a plan of action, they continue to press for more research—a classic case of “paralysis by analysis”. 他们没有出台行动计划,相反只是继续迫切要求进行更多的研究——这是一个经典的“分析导致麻痹案例”。

  ancestor★

  构词an在前面的+cest行走,前进+or人→走在前面的人→祖先

  n.a forerunner or predecessor 祖宗,祖先;原型,先驱

  真题连线2005 Text 1

  However, whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans, or whether it stems from the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago, is, as yet, an unanswered question. 然而这种公平感是在卷尾猴和人类身上各自独立演化而成,还是来自三千五百万前他们共同的祖先,这还是一个悬而未决的问题。

  anecdote★

  构词anec未出版+dote给予→说出来的故事

  n.a short account of an interesting or humorous incident 轶事,趣闻,短故事

  真题连线1998 Passage 2

  There is, as Robert Rubin, the treasury secretary, says, a “disjunction” between the mass of business anecdote that points to a leap in productivity and the picture reflected by the statistics. 正如财政部长罗伯特·鲁宾所说的,生产力发生飞跃的商业传奇与统计数字所反映的情况之间存在着一种“脱节”。

  announce★

  构词an表强调+nounce讲话,说出→表强调讲→宣布

  v.1.make (sth) known publicly 宣布; 宣告;发表

  2.make known the presence or arrival通报

  链接 announcement n.宣布; 宣告; 通告

  真题连线1997 Passage 4

  ...he announced that the company would launch a drive to develop standards for distribution and labeling of potentially objectionable music. 他还宣布公司将致力于为一些人们可能会反感的音乐制定发行和标识的标准。

  annual★

  构词ann年,一年+ual形容词后缀→一年一次的

  a.1.happening every year 每年的; 年度的

  2.calculated for the year 按年度计算的

  n.book or periodical that is published once a year 年鉴; 年刊; 年报

  链接annually ad.年年地, 每年地

  真题连线1998 Passage 4

  Even so, that gain adds up to only 11.4 percent, lowest in American annual records except for the Depression years. 即使如此,人口总数也只增加了11.4%,除了大萧条时期,这是美国年度记录最低的增长率。

  anthropological▲

  构词anthropo人类+logical形容词后缀→人类学的

  a.人类学的, 人类学上的

  链接anthropologist▲n.人类学者, 人类学家

  真题连线2003英译汉

  Thus,the anthropological concept of“culture”,like the concept of“set”in mathematics,is an abstract concept which makes possible immense amounts of concrete research and understanding. 因此,人类学中的“文化”概念就像数学中“集”的概念一样,是一个抽象概念。它使大量的具体研究和认识成为可能。

  anticipate★

  构词anti前+cip抓+ate动词后缀→先拿→预期

  v.to feel or realize beforehand; foresee; fulfill in advance预料;期望;预先考虑;提前使用

  链接anticipation n.预期, 预料

  真题连线1999 Passage 1

  What we anticipate seldom occurs; what we lest expected generally happens.我们所预料的事很少发生,最预料不到的事却往往出现。

  apparent★

  构词ap表强调+par看见+ent形容词后缀→表强调能看见→显而易见

  a.1.clearly seen or understood; obvious 清楚易见或易懂; 显然

  2.seeming; unreal 表面上的; 假的

  链接 apparently ad.看来; 似乎

  真题连线2002 Text 1

  Include a few casual and apparently off-the-cuff remarks which you can deliver in a relaxed and unforced manner. 包括一些很随便的、看上去是即兴的话,你可以用轻松的、不做作的方式把它们说出来。

 appearance★

  构词appear出现+ance性质,状况“(表名词)→外表

  n.1.the act or an instance of coming into sight.出现,显露

  2.outward aspect 外表,外貌

  3.something that appears; a phenomenon景象;现象

  习惯用语at first appearance乍看起来; from all appearance(s)看来, 显然

  give the appearance of装出…的样子; 看起来象 put on the appearance of装出…样子

  真题连线2003 Text 2

  They should be quick to respond to letters to the editor, lest animal rights misinformation go unchallenged and acquire a deceptive appearance of truth. 他们应该对读者致编辑的来信及时做出反应,以防止动物权利倡导者借机伪装起真理的外表,猖獗盛行。

  appreciate★

  构词ap表强调+prec价值+iate动词后缀→给以价值→评价;欣赏

  vt.1.to be thankful or show gratitude for为…表示感激,感谢

  2.to recognize the quality, significance of; to admire greatly; value; 欣赏,赏识,评价

  3.to be fully aware of or sensitive to; realize意识到

  真题连线2007 part B

  Most of all, these new adults must feel that they are respected and supported by a family that appreciates them.最重要的是,这些刚刚成年的人应该觉得,他们受到一个重视他们的家庭的尊重与支持。

  approach★

  构词ap表强调+proach接近→接近

  v.1.to come or go near or nearer to靠近,接近

  2.to begin to deal with or work on 着手开始处理或工作

  n.1.the act of approaching 接近

  2.a way or means of reaching sth途径;入门方式

  习惯用语at the approach of 在…快到的时候

  be approaching(to) 与…差不多, 大致相等

  make an approach to 对…进行探讨; make approaches to sb.设法接近某人, 想博得某人的好感

  真题连线2009 Part B

  Historical particularism became a dominant approach to the study of culture in American anthropology, largely through the influence of many students of Boas. 在博厄斯许多弟子的影响下,“历史特殊性”成为美国人类学文化研究中的主导方法。

  appropriate★

  构词ap表强调+propri“拥有”,引申为“恰当的”+ate动词或形容词后缀→表强调拥有公物→挪用

  a.suitable for a particular person, condition, occasion, or place; fitting 适当的,恰当的,特有的

  vt.to take possession of or make use of exclusively for oneself 拨给,挪用,盗用

  真题连线2000 英译汉

  As a result of all these factors,governments are becoming increasingly dependent on biologists and social scientists for planning the appropriate programs and putting them into effect. 由于这些因素的结果,政府正越来越多地依靠生物学家和社会科学家来安排适当的规划,并付诸实施。

  arbiter★

  构词arbit判断+er表示人→仲裁人

  n.1.an arbitrator.仲裁人,公断人

  2.one who has the power to judge or ordain at will主宰者

  真题连线2003 Text 3

  “Do we really want railroads to be the arbiters of who wins and who loses in the marketplace?” asks Martin Bercovici, a Washington lawyer who frequently represents shipper. “我们是否真的想让铁路公司成为在市场上决定谁败谁荣的裁决者呢?”一位经常代理货运商的华盛顿牧师马丁·贝科维奇提出了疑问。

  arithmetic▲

  构词arithm计算+etic 人或学科(表名词)→算术

  n.算术算法

  链接arithmetical a.算术的; 关于算术的

  arithmetician n.算术家

  真题连线1996 Passage 4

  Why mention the elementary schools? Because thanks to these schools our early mechanics, especially in the New England and Middle atlantic states, were generally literate and at home in arithmetic and in some aspects of geometry and trigonometry. 为什么要提小学教育?正是因为有了这些学校,我们的早期技工才普遍能读会写,并精通算术及部分几何和三角方面的知识,这种情况在新英格兰和大西洋中部各州尤为可见。

 arrange★

  构词ar表强调+range排列,顺序→排列起来→安排

  v.1.put (sth) in order; make tidy, neat or attractive 安排; 整理; 布置; 排列

  2.plan the details of (a future event); organize in advance 筹备; 安排

  真题连线1996 Cloze Test

  They are different in that trend their elements are arranged differently , and each vitamin performs one or more specific functions in the body. 它们的不同之处在于每种维生素内的元素排列不同,并且每种维生素在人体内都有一种或多种特殊作用。

  arrival★

  构词ar被强调+riv河岸+al名词后缀→到达河岸→到达;到达者

  n.1.the act of arriving到达

  2.one that arrives or has arrived到达者

  真题连线2002 Text 1

  “Who is that?” the new arrival asked St. Peter.“这是谁啊?”新来的人问圣彼得。

  article★

  构词art技巧,关节,诡计+icle东西→用技巧做出的东西→物品

  n.1.particular or separate thing物件; 物品

  2.piece of writing, complete in itself文章

  真题连线1995 Passage 1

  He will not do so for long, for mercifully the public has the good sense not to buy the inferior article more than once. 他这样做的时间不会很长,因为庆幸的是,公众有良好的判断力,不会一而再地去购买劣质商品。

  artificial★

  构词art艺术,技巧+fic做→用技巧做出的→人工的

  a.1.made or produced by man in imitation of sth natural; not real 人造的; 人工的; 假的

  2.affected; insincere; not genuine 做作的; 虚假的

  真题连线2001 04年英译汉

  Some of the biggest developments will be in medicine,including an extended life expectancy and dozens of artificial organs coming into use between now and 2040. 医学界将取得最大进展,其中包括延长人的寿命和从现在到2040年间将陆续投入使用的几十种人造器官。

  aside▲

  构词a在…的+side旁边→在边上

  ad.on or to one side of the main position, direction, etc 在一边; 向一边

  n.aside 旁白;顺便说的话

  真题连线2002 Text 1

  Everyone is very peaceful, polite and friendly until, waiting in a line for lunch, the new arrival is suddenly pushed aside by a man in a white coat, who rushes to the head of the line, grabs his food and stomps over to a table by himself. 所有人都很安静、礼貌和友善,然而当这位新来的人在排队等候午餐时,突然被一位穿白大褂的人推到一旁。只见这人挤到了队伍的前头,抓起他的食物,噔噔地旁若无人地走到一张餐桌旁。

  aspect★

  构词a表强调+spect看→看的东西→外表,容貌

  n.1.particular part or feature of sth being considered 方面

  2.appearance or look样子, 容貌, 神态

  3.side of a building that faces a particular direction (建筑物的)方向, 方位

  真题连线2007 Text 2

  Other standardized tests, such as the Scholastic assessment Test (SAT) and the Graduate Record Exam (GRE), capture the main aspects of IQ tests. 其他标准测试,比如学术能力检测以及研究生入学考试,包含了智商测试的主要方面。

  aspire★

  构词a表强调+spire呼吸→看到渴望的东西表强调呼吸→热望

  vi.1.to have a great ambition or ultimate goal; desire strongly有雄心大志;强烈地渴望

  2.to strive toward an end渴望,追求

  链接apiration n.渴望,热望

  真题连线2005 Text 4

  American no longer expect public figures, whether in speech or in writing, to command the English language with skill and gift. Nor do they aspire to such command themselves. 美国人已不再期待公众人物在演讲或写作中能运用技巧和文采来驾驭英语,而公众人物自己也不渴望这样。

 assault ★

  构词as表强调+sault跳→表强调跳起来→进攻

  v.to make an assault 猛烈地攻击,袭击

  n.a violent physical or verbal attack 突然而猛烈的攻击

  真题连线2000 Passage 4

  Last year Japan experienced 2125 incidents of school violence, including 929 assaults on teachers. 去年日本发生了2125起校园暴力事件,其中包括929起袭击老师事件。

  assemble★

  构词as表强调+semble相类似,一样→不断使东西相同→组装[东西]

  v.1.to bring or call together into a group or whole:召集

  2.to fit together the parts or pieces of装配

  vi.to gather together; congregate集合

  真题连线1998 Passage 3

  Defenders of science have also voiced their concerns at meetings such as “the Flight from Science and Reason,” held in New York City in 1995, and “Science in the age of (Mis)information,” which assembled last June near Buffalo. 科学的捍卫者们也在一些会议上表示了他们的担忧。比如,1995年在纽约举行的“远离科学和理性”会议,以及去年6月在布法罗附近召开的“信息(迷信)时代的科学”会议。

  assert★

  构词as表强调+sert加入,插入→强行插入观点→断言

  vt.1.to state or express positively; affirm断言

  2. to defend or maintain维护,坚持(自己的权利)

  n.1.the act of asserting.武断的行为

  2.something declared or stated positively断言

  链接assertion n.主张, 断言, 声明

  习惯用语assert oneself坚持自己的权利; 表现自己的权威

  真题连线2008英译汉

  He asserted, also, that his power to follow a long and purely abstract train of thought was very limited, for which reason he felt certain that he never could have succeeded with mathematics.他此外还断言,在深入理解冗长且完全抽象的观点上,他的能力有限。有鉴于此,他曾确信自己在数学方面不会有成就。

  assess ★

  构词as表强调+sess坐→坐在一旁→评审→估价

  vt.to estimate the value of (property); determine the value; appraise评估(财产、收入);征税;评价

  真题连线2007 Text 2

  In his article “How Intelligent Is Intelligence Testing?”, Sternberg notes that traditional test best assess analytical and verbal skills but fail to measure creativity and practical knowledge, components also critical to problem solving and life success.在其名为“智力测试如何明智?”这篇文章中,斯顿伯格指出,传统的测试最恰当地评估了分析能力和语言表达能力,但没有测量创造性和实际知识,这些也是解决问题、在生活中取得成功的关键因素。

  asset ★

  构词as朝向+set充足→走向富裕→有财产

  1.valuable or useful quality or useful person有价值的, 有用的特性, 有用的人

  2.thing, especially property, owned by a person, company, etc资产

  真题连线2007 Text 4

  Surely it should be obvious to the dimmest executive that trust, that most valuable of economic assets, is easily destroyed and hugely expensive to restore - and that few things are more likely to destroy trust than a company letting sensitive personal data get into the wrong hands.当然,对于最怀疑的管理人员来说,显而易见的应该是,诚信(最珍贵的经济财产)被轻易破坏,而要恢复诚信却代价高昂,此外,很少有什么比一个公司听任敏感的个人信息落入不妥当人之手更可能破坏诚信的了。

  assign★

  构词as表强调+sign记号,信号→不断给人信号→指定

  vt.to set apart for a particular purpose;select for a duty;appoint派给,分配;选定,指定

  习惯用语 assignment n.分配,指派;(分派的)任务

  真题连线2002英译汉

  As the interaction between organism and environment has come to be understood,however,effects once assigned to states of mind,feelings,and traits are beginning to be traced to accessible conditions. 然而,由于人(生物)和环境之间的相互作用已经逐渐被人们所认识,所以现在正开始从已知的环境去寻找一度认为是心态、情感和性格特征所造成的影响其根源所在。

 arrange★

  构词ar表强调+range排列,顺序→排列起来→安排

  v.1.put (sth) in order; make tidy, neat or attractive 安排; 整理; 布置; 排列

  2.plan the details of (a future event); organize in advance 筹备; 安排

  真题连线1996 Cloze Test

  They are different in that trend their elements are arranged differently , and each vitamin performs one or more specific functions in the body. 它们的不同之处在于每种维生素内的元素排列不同,并且每种维生素在人体内都有一种或多种特殊作用。

  arrival★

  构词ar被强调+riv河岸+al名词后缀→到达河岸→到达;到达者

  n.1.the act of arriving到达

  2.one that arrives or has arrived到达者

  真题连线2002 Text 1

  “Who is that?” the new arrival asked St. Peter.“这是谁啊?”新来的人问圣彼得。

  article★

  构词art技巧,关节,诡计+icle东西→用技巧做出的东西→物品

  n.1.particular or separate thing物件; 物品

  2.piece of writing, complete in itself文章

  真题连线1995 Passage 1

  He will not do so for long, for mercifully the public has the good sense not to buy the inferior article more than once. 他这样做的时间不会很长,因为庆幸的是,公众有良好的判断力,不会一而再地去购买劣质商品。

  artificial★

  构词art艺术,技巧+fic做→用技巧做出的→人工的

  a.1.made or produced by man in imitation of sth natural; not real 人造的; 人工的; 假的

  2.affected; insincere; not genuine 做作的; 虚假的

  真题连线2001 04年英译汉

  Some of the biggest developments will be in medicine,including an extended life expectancy and dozens of artificial organs coming into use between now and 2040. 医学界将取得最大进展,其中包括延长人的寿命和从现在到2040年间将陆续投入使用的几十种人造器官。

  aside▲

  构词a在…的+side旁边→在边上

  ad.on or to one side of the main position, direction, etc 在一边; 向一边

  n.aside 旁白;顺便说的话

  真题连线2002 Text 1

  Everyone is very peaceful, polite and friendly until, waiting in a line for lunch, the new arrival is suddenly pushed aside by a man in a white coat, who rushes to the head of the line, grabs his food and stomps over to a table by himself. 所有人都很安静、礼貌和友善,然而当这位新来的人在排队等候午餐时,突然被一位穿白大褂的人推到一旁。只见这人挤到了队伍的前头,抓起他的食物,噔噔地旁若无人地走到一张餐桌旁。

  aspect★

  构词a表强调+spect看→看的东西→外表,容貌

  n.1.particular part or feature of sth being considered 方面

  2.appearance or look样子, 容貌, 神态

  3.side of a building that faces a particular direction (建筑物的)方向, 方位

  真题连线2007 Text 2

  Other standardized tests, such as the Scholastic assessment Test (SAT) and the Graduate Record Exam (GRE), capture the main aspects of IQ tests. 其他标准测试,比如学术能力检测以及研究生入学考试,包含了智商测试的主要方面。

  aspire★

  构词a表强调+spire呼吸→看到渴望的东西表强调呼吸→热望

  vi.1.to have a great ambition or ultimate goal; desire strongly有雄心大志;强烈地渴望

  2.to strive toward an end渴望,追求

  链接apiration n.渴望,热望

  真题连线2005 Text 4

  American no longer expect public figures, whether in speech or in writing, to command the English language with skill and gift. Nor do they aspire to such command themselves. 美国人已不再期待公众人物在演讲或写作中能运用技巧和文采来驾驭英语,而公众人物自己也不渴望这样。

  assault ★

  构词as表强调+sault跳→表强调跳起来→进攻

  v.to make an assault 猛烈地攻击,袭击

  n.a violent physical or verbal attack 突然而猛烈的攻击

  真题连线2000 Passage 4

  Last year Japan experienced 2125 incidents of school violence, including 929 assaults on teachers. 去年日本发生了2125起校园暴力事件,其中包括929起袭击老师事件。

  assemble★

  构词as表强调+semble相类似,一样→不断使东西相同→组装[东西]

  v.1.to bring or call together into a group or whole:召集

  2.to fit together the parts or pieces of装配

  vi.to gather together; congregate集合

  真题连线1998 Passage 3

  Defenders of science have also voiced their concerns at meetings such as “the Flight from Science and Reason,” held in New York City in 1995, and “Science in the age of (Mis)information,” which assembled last June near Buffalo. 科学的捍卫者们也在一些会议上表示了他们的担忧。比如,1995年在纽约举行的“远离科学和理性”会议,以及去年6月在布法罗附近召开的“信息(迷信)时代的科学”会议。

  assert★

  构词as表强调+sert加入,插入→强行插入观点→断言

  vt.1.to state or express positively; affirm断言

  2. to defend or maintain维护,坚持(自己的权利)

  n.1.the act of asserting.武断的行为

  2.something declared or stated positively断言

  链接assertion n.主张, 断言, 声明

  习惯用语assert oneself坚持自己的权利; 表现自己的权威

  真题连线2008英译汉

  He asserted, also, that his power to follow a long and purely abstract train of thought was very limited, for which reason he felt certain that he never could have succeeded with mathematics.他此外还断言,在深入理解冗长且完全抽象的观点上,他的能力有限。有鉴于此,他曾确信自己在数学方面不会有成就。

  assess ★

  构词as表强调+sess坐→坐在一旁→评审→估价

  vt.to estimate the value of (property); determine the value; appraise评估(财产、收入);征税;评价

  真题连线2007 Text 2

  In his article “How Intelligent Is Intelligence Testing?”, Sternberg notes that traditional test best assess analytical and verbal skills but fail to measure creativity and practical knowledge, components also critical to problem solving and life success.在其名为“智力测试如何明智?”这篇文章中,斯顿伯格指出,传统的测试最恰当地评估了分析能力和语言表达能力,但没有测量创造性和实际知识,这些也是解决问题、在生活中取得成功的关键因素。

  asset ★

  构词as朝向+set充足→走向富裕→有财产

  1.valuable or useful quality or useful person有价值的, 有用的特性, 有用的人

  2.thing, especially property, owned by a person, company, etc资产

  真题连线2007 Text 4

  Surely it should be obvious to the dimmest executive that trust, that most valuable of economic assets, is easily destroyed and hugely expensive to restore - and that few things are more likely to destroy trust than a company letting sensitive personal data get into the wrong hands.当然,对于最怀疑的管理人员来说,显而易见的应该是,诚信(最珍贵的经济财产)被轻易破坏,而要恢复诚信却代价高昂,此外,很少有什么比一个公司听任敏感的个人信息落入不妥当人之手更可能破坏诚信的了。

  assign★

  构词as表强调+sign记号,信号→不断给人信号→指定

  vt.to set apart for a particular purpose;select for a duty;appoint派给,分配;选定,指定

  习惯用语 assignment n.分配,指派;(分派的)任务

  真题连线2002英译汉

  As the interaction between organism and environment has come to be understood,however,effects once assigned to states of mind,feelings,and traits are beginning to be traced to accessible conditions. 然而,由于人(生物)和环境之间的相互作用已经逐渐被人们所认识,所以现在正开始从已知的环境去寻找一度认为是心态、情感和性格特征所造成的影响其根源所在。

  assimilate★

  构词as表强调+simil相类似,一样+ate动词后缀→不断相同→同化

  vt.to consume nutrients into the body after digestion吸收;使同化

  vi.to become assimilated被吸收;被同化

  真题连线2004 英译汉

  We are obliged to them because some of these languages have since vanished, as the peoples who spoke them died out or became assimilated and lost their native languages. 我们之所以感激他们,是因为从此以后,这些语言中的一部分消失了,因为讲这些语言的人要么灭绝了,要么被同化了,因而丧失了自己的语言。

  assist ★

  构词as表强调+sist站立→站在一起→帮助

  vt.to give help or support to协助,帮助,促进

  vi. to give aid or support; be present, 参加; 出席在场

  习惯用语assist sb. with sth. = assist sb. to do sth. = assist sb. in doing sth. 帮助某人

  真题连线2002 Text 4

  The Supreme Court’s decisions on physician-assisted suicide carry important implications for how medicine seeks to relieve dying patients of pain and suffering. 最高法庭关于医生协助病人结束生命问题的裁决,对于如何用药物减轻病危者的痛苦这个问题来说,具有重要的意义。

  associate★

  构词as表强调+soc同伴,引申为社会+iate动词后缀→成为社团→联合

  vt.to connect in the mind or imagination; to join together, combine联想;交往;联合

  n.a companion; a comrade 伙伴

  a.联合的,副的associate professor [美]副教授

  链接association n.联盟,协会,社团;交往,联合;联想(associat(e)联合+ion名词后缀→社团)

  真题连线2009 Part C

  In the former case the education is incidental; it is natural and important, but it is not the express reason of the association. 对于前者,教育是偶然的,很自然,也很重要,但它不是这种联系存在的特别的理由。

  assume ★

  构词as表强调+sum拿,取+e动词后缀→拿往→承担

  vt.1.to take for granted; suppose 假装;假定,设想

  2.to take upon oneself 承担

  3.to affect the appearance or possession of 呈现

  4.to take on; adopt 采取

  链接assumption n.假定,设想;采取;承担;推测;假装

  真题连线2004 Text 1

  The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse language could be. 希腊人认为,语言结构与思维过程之间存在着某种联系。这一观点在人们尚未认识到语言的千差万别以前就早已在欧洲扎下了根。

  astronomer★

  构词astro星星+nomy学科+er 人→研究星星学科的人→天文学家

  n.one that specializes in astronomy天文学家

  真题连线1998英译汉

  Cobe is designed to see just the biggest structures,but astronomers would like to see much smaller hot spots as well,the seeds of local objects like clusters and superclusters of galaxies. Cobe卫星设计的目的就是观察这些最大的物体结构,但天文学家还想看到更为微小的热点,即像星系中的星团和超星团这样一些局部物体的粒子。

  attach★

  构词at表强调+tach钉子→附上

  v.1.to fasten, secure or join 系,贴

  2.to connect as an adjunct or associated condition or part使联系

  3.to ascribe or assign归咎于

  4.to bind by emotional ties, as of affection or loyalty使喜爱,使依恋

  链接attach oneself to依附;热爱, 依恋; attach to归因于, 适用于

  be attached to连在…上, 附属于;热爱, 依恋

  真题连线2009 Text 4

  According to the standard history of American philosophy, nowhere else in colonial America was “so much important attached to intellectual pursuits.” 根据正统的美国哲学史的记载,美洲殖民地中没有任何地方像北美这里一样“对知识的追求如此重视”。

 attain★

  构词at 表强调+tain拿住→拿住了→获得

  vt.to achieve达到,获得;

  vi. to succeed in a directed effort, process, or progression到达

  真题连线 2000 Passage 3

  When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion, it is advisable to find out what its advocates are aiming at, for, however farfetched and unreasonable their principles may seem today, it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal. 当一场新的艺术运动形成某种时尚时,理应弄清其倡导者的目标所在,因为无论他们的准则在今天看来是多么牵强附会、不可思议,将来都有可能被视为正常的。

  attendance★

  构词at表强调+tend伸展+ance名词后缀→伸展出去→出席

  n.the act of attending.出席,参加

  真题连线2006 Text 2

  The theatre has broken attendance records for three years in a row. Last year its 1,431 seats were 94 per cent occupied all year long and this year they’ll do better.剧院已经打破了连续三年以来的就座率纪录。去年整年的1431个座位的就坐率达到了94%,今年将会更高。

  attention★

  构词at表强调+tent伸展+ion名词后缀→伸展出去[听别人讲]→注意力

  n.1.the ability or power to concentrate mentally.注意力

  2.observant consideration; notice 谨慎的考虑;注意

  习惯用语attract attention引起注意; bring sth. to sb.’s attention使某人注意某事

  call sb.’s attention to sth.促使某人注意某事; devote one’s attention to专心于, 对…注意

  链接attentive a.注意的,专心的,留心的

  真题连线2007 Text 4

  In bringing up the concept of GASP the author is making the point that information protection should be given due attention.在提出公认的安全措施观念时,作者强调了信息保护应该受到应有的重视。

  attitude▲

  构词att能力,倾向+itude性质,状态等→态度

  n.1.a position of the body or manner of carrying oneself 姿势,姿态

  2.a state of mind or a feeling; disposition 心态,看法

  习惯用语attitude of mind思想方法; 看法, 观点 take an attitude of采取…态度

  strike an attitude摆出一种姿态; 作出舞台上的身段; 装模作样

  真题连线2001 Passage 3

  Here is a troubled business that keeps hiring employees whose attitudes vastly annoy the customers. 这是一个棘手的行业,却不断地雇用观点总体上使客户恼怒的雇员。

  attribute★

  构词at表强调+tribute给予→把原因给出→归因

  v.relate to a particular cause or source; ascribe归因于,归属于

  n.a quality or characteristic inherent in or ascribed to 属性,品质,特征

  习惯用语 attribute sth. to 把某事物归功于

  真题连线2009 Part B

  Some attributed virtually every important cultural achievement to the inventions of a few, especially gifted peoples that, according to diffusionists, then spread to other cultures. 实际上,一些人将每一个重要的文化成就归因于某些人,特别是天才的发明,之后,发明传播到其他文化中去,这就是扩散主义者的观点。

  augment★

  构词aug增加+ment动词后缀→增大,扩张

  v.to make greater, as in size, extent, or quantity扩大,增加,表强调

  n.an enlargement or increase加大或增加

  真题连线1999英译汉

  During this transfer,traditional historical methods were augmented by additional methodologies designed to interpret the new forms of evidence in the historical study. 在这种转变中,历史学家研究历史时,那些解释新史料的新方法充实了传统的历史研究方法。

  authentic▲

  构词aut自己+hent领会+ic 形容词后缀; 自己领会的→可靠的

  a.conforming to fact and therefore worthy of trust真的,真正的;可信的,有根据的

  真题连线2005 Text 4

  But the cult of the authentic and the personal, “doing our own thing”, has spelt the death of formal speech, writing, poetry and music. 然而,“做自己的事”这一对事务真实性和个性的崇高信条,已经导致了正式演讲、写作、诗歌及音乐的消亡。

 automate★

  构词auto自己+mat动+e 动词后缀→使自动化

  v.to convert to automatic operation使自动化

  真题连线2002 Text 2

  Our banking is done at automated teller terminals that thank us with mechanical politeness for the transaction.我们的金融服务完成于自动柜员机旁,完成业务后,它们还会机械地、有礼貌地感谢我们。

  autonomous★

  构词auto自己+ nom治理+ous 形容词后缀→自治的

  a.not controlled by others or by outside forces; independent自治的

  真题连线2002英译汉

  They are the possessions of the autonomous(self-governing)man of traditional theory,and they are essential to practices in which a person is held responsible for his conduct and given credit for his achievements. 自由和尊严(它们)是传统理论定义的自主人所拥有的,是要求一个人对自己的行为负责并因其业绩而给予肯定的必不可少的前提。

  avail★

  构词a使+vail强壮→使…强壮→利用力量

  n.use, benefit, or advantage 效用,利益

  vt.to be of use or advantage to; help 有用;帮助

  vi.to be of use, value, or advantage; serve有益(与of连用);利用

  链接available a.可利用的;可见到的

  availability n.有效性, 可利用性

  习惯用语 avail (oneself) of .利用

  真题连线2009 Text 2

  More than 60,000 people have purchased the PTKs since they first became available without prescriptions last years, according to Doug Fogg, chief operating officer of Identigene, which makes the over-the-counter kits. 根据Identigene(一家生产非处方产品测试包的公司)的首席运营官道格·福格的说法,自去年开始不需要处方就能在药店购买以来,已经有超过6万多人购买了该亲子鉴定产品测试包。

  ★aware

  构词a加强意义+war小心+e形容词后缀

  a.知道的,意识到的

  链接 unaware a.没有发觉的,不知道的(un-否定前缀+ aware知道的)

  真题连线2009 Text 1

  All of us work through problems in ways of which we’re unaware, she says.她还说,我们所有人都是在用我们自己并没有觉察到的方式解决这样或那样的问题的。

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